michael kors online store
original title: groundwater arsenic contamination endangers almost 20 million people
groundwater arsenic contamination risk maps for more than 20 years in China, Meng of Inner Mongolia keharigen GA found villagers Wu Zhiqiang aged 47 with a "strange diseases" have been to a dozen hospitals in Beijing and local. His palms grew in serried ranks, vary in size as well as calluses on a hangnail. "The ' scabs ' hard, get some stuff I have to drill. "Wu Zhiqiang told China Youth daily. He also had many, black, white, green and the "flower carpet".
Lao Wu blamed for contracting this disease, is a chemical element in the periodic table 33 arsenic — it is best known for its oxides, arsenic. Dialysis into the groundwater from the formation of arsenic, long-term consumption of arsenic exceeding the groundwater, prone to endemic arsenic poisoning in drinking-water (referred to as "arsenic"), in severe cases, can lead to lung cancer, skin cancer and other cancers.
in the recently published a paper in the journal Science, Wu Zhiqiang village location, as well as the adjacent Plains of almost the whole of the loop, was painted red or yellow, this means, Wu Zhiqiang lives in the water pollution in high-risk areas. According to the article's forecast model data, and like old Wu, Chinese living in high-risk areas of groundwater arsenic exceeding the much as 19.58 million people.
Deputy Director of the Research Office of the Chinese Center for disease control environmental epidemic when Shang Qi in an interview with China Youth daily reporter, this figure represents a basic recognition. One of the authors of the paper Annette · Johnson points out that the extent of the problem: "in high-risk areas, danger of arsenic and high population density is simultaneous. "
the second author, China Medical University, school of public health Professor Sun Guifan told China Youth daily that, for many years, but have found outside of arsenism, authorities still don't know where arsenic contamination of groundwater. "This model is simply too important. "Sun Guifan said," drinking water technology easier to implement, but, above all, to know which may exist where arsenic contamination. "
China is such a vast country, extremely difficult to monitor each groundwater wells
in mid-August, just in from Yunnan Sun Guifan midu County back to Shenyang, a few days later will fly to Switzerland. Over the past more than 20 years, he traveled the country, study on harm of arsenic. In Zurich, Swiss Federal Institute of aquatic science and technology, the Science magazine "owners" United States Science Foundation designed for Switzerland, China, Spain three researchers completed the arsenic contamination of groundwater in China held a press conference. The cover of this issue of the journal Science, is a piece of "China water arsenic contamination risk map".
on his way to launch, Sun Guifan in midu County see stories vividly. Because of water scarcity, the local people have to use the nearby hot spring water, and that water with higher concentrations of arsenic.
in the early 60 's, Chinese residents began using tubewells (also known as well) to draw ground water as drinking water. "Through the hands well out are likely to be affected by arsenic contamination of ground water. "Sun Guifan said that" due to the influence of many factors such as geology and geochemistry of arsenic are easy to dissolve into the water from underground rock formations. "Who gives recommended values of groundwater arsenic content is 0.01 mg per liter of water with arsenic, long-term consumption of groundwater in excess of this value, it will cause harm of arsenic.
the village where Wu Zhiqiang, the whole population of 229 people, villagers of arsenic poisoning occurs one-tenth. According to the village Party Secretary introduced, three or four people was the most serious such as Wu Zhiqiang, has basically lost labor.
according to the research, long-term intake of arsenic, can cause skin pigmentation, hand and foot bottom corners of excessive damage, liver disease, cardiovascular and renal function. "The most serious cancer. "Sun Guifan said:" arsenic is a first class international cancer organizations confirmed human carcinogen, which is the major global concern it. "The
Switzerland of the Press Conference informed the three researchers took 4 years of research results. Article provides an "arsenic water pollution risk maps of China", is painted in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi and other more serious, dark red and yellow.
in addition to this, used to be excluded and unknown in high-risk areas have also been marked, including Western Liaoning, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan and other central in jianghuai region, Sichuan, and Gansu in heihe River basin and other areas. There are risks in a particular area of Beijing.
as early as in papers released 4 months ago, United States BA County campus of the University of Maryland chemistry Zhou Jing sent tweets says, arsenic removal technology for almost 10 years, on the lack of national data released. She also emphasized: "the most welcome this kind of information! No data, let the technology useless. "
from 2001 to 2005, the Ministry of health organize a national study on endemic arsenic contamination monitoring of 445,000 domestic wells, but that was less than one-eighth of the total, more time needed 20 years to complete. As stated in the Science magazine associate editor Nick · Wen Jindun pointed out at a news conference, "large countries like China, it is extremely difficult to monitor each groundwater wells".
in 2009, cooperation, three countries of Switzerland, Western scientists began, trying to have a new distribution models to predict the level of groundwater concentrations of arsenic in China.
different from individual caused by arsenic contamination, natural groundwater pollution is more universal
, "the team involves a wide range of disciplines, a number of countries. "Sun Guifan with particular emphasis on the special nature of this cooperation," the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, remote control, Chinese researchers directly related to human health, as well as specific water sample collection and testing. "
researchers develop their potentials, geographic parameters required for collecting model, chemical, physical indicators 8 parameters, such as, soil, geology, goal is to map out the arsenic contamination risk maps. "For example, the geological formation of Inner Mongolia in the Holocene (11,500 years ago until now, is the youngest geological period), the formation of easily soluble arsenic in the groundwater; of arsenic can also be easily soluble in saline-alkali soil into the groundwater. "Sun Guifan explained.
parameters of more local arsenic exceeded the greater the risk. According to the 8 indicators, combined with more than more than 2,600 sample findings of the village, the researchers calculated 580,000 square kilometers on the map where there is excessive groundwater arsenic risk. Which place is painted dark red with the highest probability.
the accuracy of the models up to 1 km, "as in one or two villages in the area." But the researchers also know that each well arsenic concentrations can occur within a short distance of a lot of changes, which are the characteristics of arsenic contamination of groundwater, sometimes playing out of the partition by a wall of two families in the village courtyard of the content of arsenic in well water may differ by many.
validation of the model, results show that arsenic contaminated areas forecast accuracy can reach 77% for the forecast accuracy of up to 85% per cent of non-contaminated areas. Sun Guifan pointed out: "the model prediction is that may be affected by arsenic contaminated areas, where well water arsenic concentration must be tested. "
19.58 million of the population data, a population density on the surface of the Earth is based on the United Nations Web site, with a square for precision, calculated through that coverage.
"but cannot say 19.58 million arsenic poisoning, we are talking about is the geographical coverage of possible arsenic contamination of groundwater. "Sun Guifan told China Youth daily reporter," that figure also included urban population located in risk areas, while the urban population without running water, of course, that part of the population should be removed. "
This means that, if less urban population from drinking tap water, 19.58 million the number will shrink. "City tap water after a water treatment technology, is standard for arsenic. "Sun Guifan pointed out.
Shang Qi also stressed that different from other excessive drinking water quality, excessive groundwater arsenic and man-made pollution that occurs in these areas is irrelevant. "Can exist in the formation of arsenic is natural dialysis to ground water. "Shang Qi said," is different from human-caused arsenic contamination is an isolated incident, groundwater is more universal. "The
Institute of Geographic Sciences and natural resources Research Center for environmental remediation Director Chen Tongbin noted that, according to the Ministry of Health 's" arsenic contamination of water samples nationwide screening programme ", the National CDC speculated as early as 2005, 14.7 million people live in water-arsenic exceeded the region, which has 5.6 million people live in high-risk areas.
"at first, people who'd have thought myself everyday drinking arsenic? "
Sun Guifan about significance of the thesis, and excitedly said two" too important. " He believes this risk map key is newly discovered high risk areas. Media evaluation, which are at high risk of arsenic contamination of groundwater in region list is refreshed by large scale for the first time.
in fact, the paper authors, from Switzerland Federal Institute of aquatic science and technology Michael · 5 years ago, Berger, has drawn a South-East Asia and Bangladesh "arsenic contamination risk map" — this is the first map risk of arsenic contamination of groundwater — published in the journal nature · on Earth science.
"China is in addition to Bangladesh, one of the most serious arsenic poisoning. "Sun Guifan said. Data from the leading medical journal the Lancet reference, 1 out of every 5 deaths in Bangladesh because of and its related diseases caused by arsenic poisoning.
according to reports, discovered in 1980 in Xinjiang in China's first drinking water arsenic poisoning patients in Inner Mongolia and Shanxi provinces after being found. The early 90, arsenic in the health sector as one of the five major endemic diseases in China.
arsenic poisoning is a chronic disease, the incubation period for decades. In 1987, Wu Zhiqiang found their skin for the first time when a strange, local doctor diagnosed with corn and other common skin diseases. The grief-seeking way, he told doctors he was sometimes arsenic poisoning, was asked: "what is arsenic? "
" arsenic accumulate in the body over a dozen years later, the case finally appeared in the 80 's. "In 1993, Sun Guifan from Japan visit to return home at that time had just identified as endemic arsenic poisoning in the health sector. "People were shocked, are reflected to the State Department. "Sun Guifan recalls," at that time I felt important, got to do more research on this disease. "
Wu Zhiqiang, Sun Guifan early exposure to patients who don't know what's wrong, feel dizzy and have a headache, I thought it was working hard, and some have skin corners of Dermatology for the doctor to look at it. "At first, people who'd have thought myself everyday drinking arsenic? "
talking about arsenic disease prevention, Sun Guifan's response was simple:" there is no other, is water. "
according to reports, the" Eleven-Five "period, the State has invested billions of dollars to water. Over the past more than 20 years, only Sun Guifan led team discovered excessive groundwater arsenic village, and then tested by the health sector, report for the Ministry of water resources, water supply.
"before these more obvious Ward and contaminated areas were turned out. "Sun Guifan told reporters that" drinking water without much technical difficulty, refer to the water reservoirs, lakes, playing deep, or for pumping out polluted water treatment of water. "Munch harigen GA now check all used clean spring water, disease control in the village.
However, these are only for excessive groundwater arsenic problem. Chen Tongbin said that arsenic contamination still exists in the soil, "to fix the arsenic contamination in the soil is much more difficult." In his Office, stocked with pots used for adsorption of arsenic in soil by a centipede grass. "This is by far the most effective way of removal of arsenic from soil. "He pointed to a centipede grass said.
but for Wu Zhiqiang, arsenic has destroyed his life. Today, Wu Zhiqiang divorced, and the mother and son have lived in a 20-square-metre apartment in, lives by disadvantaged people. In July, he went to the hospital for examination, the doctor cut a piece "meat" nail "test, told him his condition did not deteriorate, then added the sentence:" drink the water may still be good for 10 years.
"(China Youth daily)